## Formation of elementary ideas about time

In kindergarten, children can actively develop basic knowledge about time. Children should know all four parts of the day, name what time of day they go to bed, and when it is time to get up and go to kindergarten. In this process, a large role is given to the daily routine in the group.

The teacher calls the time of day and says what the children should do now: should they have breakfast, go for a walk, or will they have a nap?

Conversations should be regularly held with children in which parts of the day are mentioned, it is explained why this or that action should be carried out at a certain time of the day (sleep - at night, wash and have breakfast - in the morning, walk, have lunch - during the day, in the evening - play with the family, engage in various activities).

## Numbers, quantity, counting

Children get acquainted with the numbers 0...20, learn to write printed numbers in notebooks. They learn to count within 20, using ordinal numbers (second, fifth). Learn to compare adjacent numbers. Get acquainted with such concepts as less, more, the same amount. Convert equalities into inequalities and vice versa. Get acquainted with the mathematical signs + - = < >. They learn to compare numbers, figures, and the number of objects up to 20. They learn to count by 2s and 3s within 21. They study the composition of the number of the first ten. They come up with problems based on drawings and solve them based on clarity.

## Principles of mathematical learning and development of preschoolers

The method of mathematical development of a child is based on the following principles of mathematical teaching and development of preschool children:

**The principle of visualization of learning**. Training will be effective when using visual teaching aids that meet the age and individual characteristics of children’s cognitive development and perception of information.**The principle of clarity in organizing classes**. Mathematics classes should have a clear structure. The plot of the game and the sequence of actions must have a clear structure in accordance with which the development of the preschooler will take place.**The principle of relying on developmental psychology**. Mathematical learning tasks should be developed in accordance with the age-related characteristics of the child’s development, his needs and capabilities of mathematical perception.**The principle of learning variability**. It is necessary to use different methods and means of forming the child’s mathematical concepts and ideas. This can be gaming activities, logical tasks, exercises of a creative nature, but with a logical focus, etc.- The principle of multitasking learning. In the course of studying mathematics, one should focus not only on the formation of elementary mathematical concepts in the child, but also on the development of spatial perception,
**The principle of game learning**. It is important to implement the mathematical development of preschoolers in a playful form, since play is the leading activity of preschoolers. The game motivates to learn. It contains an element of surprise, captivates and develops interest in mathematics.**The principle of orientation towards the development of cognitive activity**. The child must develop not just mathematical knowledge, but also a desire to independently study mathematical science and form logical judgments and conclusions.**The principle of creating a developing space**. In preschool educational institutions, a subject-development environment is created in which fundamental cognitive processes are formed.**The principle of development of perception of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of objects**. If a child masters the differences between objects based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics, this will lay the foundation for the formation of mathematical concepts.

## Methods of mathematical development as a science

Definition 1

Methodology of mathematical development is a branch of scientific knowledge that studies the processes of development of the cognitive sphere of children and the formation in them of the foundations of logical thinking and skills in performing elementary mathematical operations.

The methodology of mathematical development is focused on the formation of elementary mathematical concepts in preschoolers. She develops a methodology for their formation and determines the patterns of functioning of different areas of thinking and logic, which affect the overall development of the individual and the mastery of mathematical science.

Mathematical development is important for a child's overall development. Therefore, teaching mathematics occupies the core of the preschool educational program. Mathematical concepts activate the cognitive activity of a preschooler and develop his thinking abilities.

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The methodology of mathematical development, as a science, is aimed at developing elementary mathematical concepts in children. This determines the following tasks of the methodology of mathematical development:

- Scientific confirmation of the level of mathematical development of preschool children at each stage of their development and the requirements for children to master the educational program.
- Development of the content of a preschool educational program in the area of mathematical education and development.
- Determination of optimal means and methods, technologies and forms of teaching preschoolers the basics of mathematics.
- Creating conditions for continuity in mathematical education of preschoolers and primary schoolchildren.
- Preparing teachers for professional activities in the field of mathematical education and development of preschool children.
- Development of recommendations for the mathematical development of a child by parents.
- Development of the main directions of cognitive activity, focused on the child’s mathematical development when engaged in different types of activities (work, sports, etc.).

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Course work Methodology of mathematical development 420 ₽ Abstract Methodology of mathematical development 260 ₽ Examination Methodology of mathematical development 250 ₽

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Since the methodology of mathematical development is a scientific branch, it has connections with other sciences. It is closely related to developmental psychology, which determines the functioning of a child’s mental processes, sensitive periods of development of specific areas, and helps in developing optimal methods for the formation of elementary mathematical concepts in preschoolers of different age groups. In addition, the methodology of mathematical development is closely related to pedagogy. This connection can be traced in the reliance of this science on didactic methods and principles of teaching children mathematics.

In addition, there is a connection between this scientific field and sociology, anthropology, mathematics, special pedagogy and cultural studies.

The subject of the methodology of mathematical development is teaching mathematics, implemented in certain forms and focused on achieving specific goals and objectives.

The object of research into the methodology of mathematical development is the methods and means of mathematical teaching used in the preschool education system.

## Orientation in space

1) Preschoolers learn to determine the position of objects in space - right, left, below, above.

2) Determine the direction of movement - from right to left, from top to bottom, back, forward, in the opposite direction, in the same direction;

3) Get acquainted with the concepts - close and far, low and high, closer, further, nearby.

4) Determine their position in space - outside or inside. Among the objects: on, in, under, over, in front of, between, to, from, through.

5) Orient themselves on a piece of paper, in a column and line of cells.